Mary Magdalene Apostle to the Apostles
Address delivered by the Revd Lucy Winkett, Minor
Canon at St Paul's Cathedral,
at the Go Tell! celebration of Christian
Women, July 2000.
I am enormously privileged to have been given the opportunity to speak today, and more than that, to have been given the spur of thinking about Mary Magdalene, of her story and legacy and where we as Christian women are called to be as this third Christian Millennium has dawned.
I make no claims of objectivity nor would I want to.
I speak as a Christian woman - I am also an ordained priest in the Church of England (so that makes me highly institutionalised and a representative of a traditional form of religion). What is more, I currently work at St Paul's Cathedral in London, one of the most traditional places of worship in the Church of England - in the middle of all its attendant connections to State pomp and City ceremony. I'm also a child of my time; a thirty something white woman who, having grown up in the Shires, has in the recent past enjoyed living in Manor Park in East London and Handsworth in Birmingham.
We are here to reflect together on our own place in the world as Christian women and to celebrate the ministry that we all - lay and ordained - share.
In my preparations for today, I was interested to note a few months ago an article in The Daily Express.
It was reported that more people watch the Vicar of Dibley each week than attend church. It seemed to me clear that the painful but obvious conclusion from this statistic was that if we want more people in our congregations then we just needed to ensure that all vicars were women............. but it also appears to me to be symptomatic of a truth about the Church of England and women; most people both inside and outside the church accept women in public religious roles; while acknowledging it is still unusual. Dawn French is possibly the most recognisably famous religious woman in the UK which is a strange state of affairs, whichever faith community you belong to, and while her character can't be called serious, and the series has drawbacks as a public portrayal of Church, it is to my mind a not unsympathetic stereotype. She is a strong character, blessed with a life saving sense of humour; and a genuine poignancy develops as she cares for and is cared for by the "odd" collection of villagers she has around her.
Christian women minister within and outside the faith community and have done from the beginning. It is the public identification and recognition that is part of our story today.
And it is such a public woman that we celebrate today; Mary of Magdala. For this talk, I should like to trace briefly the story of Mary Magdalene - her story - and explore how we can interpret her for ourselves, and then to suggest three themes that arise from her life and from the way Christian tradition has seen her.
Mary Magdalene - the woman who loved too much - the woman who'd been a prostitute but was saved from her past by Jesus. The woman who was slightly dangerous, sexy; a penitent temptress who had turned away from her many sins and found Jesus Christ more compelling. The woman who injects a different kind of passion into Holy Week.
Mary Magdalene has given her name to homes for fallen women, to the Magdalen laundries; popular as workhouses for women pregnant with the children of priests (with all the attendant imagery of sin and stain). She has given her name to a charity which currently exists to assist women who have had or who are having relationships with priests who have committed themselves to celibacy.
The penitent sinner, the reformed prostitute, has been the prevailing characterisa- tion of Mary: and her part, particularly in the story of Holy Week is always in the context of a grateful fallen woman, probably in love with Jesus, devoted to him and devastated by his death, as a deserted lover would be.
There is, in fact, no clear Biblical evidence for this character Mary Magdalene the penitent sinner. The Bible introduces us to a woman Mary of Magdala about whom it tells us very little. We'll return to her later - but first let's look at this character of Mary Magdalene and how she became so deeply embedded in the Christian story.
Mary of Magdala has been for centuries conflated with other Gospel characters.
There is an unnamed woman in Mark's gospel who comes to anoint Jesus Christ's head. She has an alabaster jar of expensive oil and scandalises the disciples who argue that more good could have been done by giving money to "the poor". Mark 14. 3-9.
There is an unnamed woman in Luke's gospel who is described as "from the city" and "a sinner" who anoints Jesus Christ's feet, washes them with her tears, kisses his feet and dries them with her hair. Luke 7. 36-50.
There is an unnamed woman from Samaria in John's gospel - John 4 - whom Jesus talks to at the village well. She is told by Jesus that she is not living with her husband and that she has five husbands behind her. Despite modern scholarship suggesting that this was in fact political code for the alliances Samaria was making with Israel's enemies, even if it is taken at face value and accepted as a description of the woman's personal past, she is not named as Mary of Magdala.
The false equation Mary of Magdala = woman with ointment = woman at the well = "loose woman" = prostitute has produced the composite figure Mary Magdalene.
The man generally credited with sanctioning this piece of Biblical imagination was Pope Gregory the Great who delivered himself of an opinion in 591 in Rome.
"She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary, we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected, according to Mark, And what did these seven devils signify, if not all the vices? It is clear my brothers that the woman previously used the unguent to perfume her flesh in forbidden acts. What she therefore displayed more scandalously, she was now offering to God in a more praiseworthy manner. She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance, for as much as she had wrongly held God in contempt."
In 1969, the Roman Catholic Church officially overruled Pope Gregory's interpretation but it dominated Western interpretation and tradition - and still does.
By the 10th century Mary Magdalene the holy harlot was fully formed. Abbot Odo at Cluny Abbey wrote that after an existence devoted to 'sensual pleasures' Mary Magdalene helps, by a reformed life and zealous ministrations to the daily needs of Jesus, to rescue females from the condemnation Eve brought upon women at the beginning. The description of Mary of Magdala as the new Eve with the parallels of Eve's disobedience in the garden of Eden, being redeemed by Mary of Magdala's obedience in the garden by the tomb also associated both women with the sexual sin and temptation that only women bring into the world!
The contemporary scholar, Marina Warner writes
"The Magdalene, like Eve, was brought into existence by the powerful undertone of misogyny in Christianity, which associates women with the dangers and degra- dation of the flesh. "
And she illustrates the double edged nature of the character Mary Magdalene by adding "For this reason, she became a prominent and beloved saint. "1
The Roman missal in 1570 described Mary Magdalene on her saint's day as "penitent"; this was her defining characteristic for exactly 400 years until 1970 when the label was removed.
In most paintings of the character Mary Magdalene she is depicted lying down, kneeling at Jesus' feet, clinging to him in the garden, listening in Bethany, weeping at the cross.
Mary Magdalene is so often, as Ingrid Maisch calls her "the woman on the floor" - shamed, humbled, moved: she is often naked - or at least her breasts are uncovered - and there is a jar of ointment, a skull and crucifix - illustrating her immersion in the suffering of Christ and her own humiliation and shame. She is, according to the artists, despite her rehabilitation, "available".
In preparing for this talk I asked several people who sit in both Anglican and Roman Catholic churches regularly what they knew about Mary of Magdala. All of them mentioned her licentious part, most thought she was the woman who kissed Jesus' feet and only when prompted did they remember that she was the first to receive news of the resurrection.
Yet this view of Mary of Magdala is not substantiated by any of the New Testament writing about her. The stories associated with her: the two anointing stories, the Samaritan woman, even suggestions that she was the woman caught in adultery, listening to Jesus in Bethany, are all stories about unnamed women except the Mary in Bethany. The gospel writers all give Mary of Magdala a unique and prominent position in their accounts, they name her when she appears, and so it is now accepted in the believing community of the Church that these stories are not about Mary of Magdala. (She certainly can't be the Samaritan woman at the well as Magdala isn't in Samaria). These characteristics of a sinful past combined with current sexual power are not defining elements of the Biblical Mary of Magdala.
The Eastern Church has not suffered from this false picture of Mary; it is almost totally a Western misinterpretation. Ironically, since women do not take leadership roles in the Orthodox Church, plenty of writers associate Mary of Magdala not primarily with sexuality and penitence but as the bearer of the good news of the resurrection. Gregory of Antioch, writing in the 6th century, has the risen Jesus saying to the women on Easter Day "Proclaim to my disciples the mysteries you have seen. Become the first teachers of the teachers. Peter, who has denied me, must learn that I can also choose women as apostles. " 2 This is writing from one of the early church fathers!
It is this picture of Mary of Magdala that is rooted in the Biblical story. So what do we know about her from the New Testament?
Luke 8. 2-3: she is introduced to us as one of a few women who obviously had money to support Jesus in his itinerant ministry. She has had seven demons go out of her - but these are not explained.
Each age has tried to explain them: Medieval theologians interpreted them as the seven deadly sins, with emphasis on lust. Martin Luther interpreted them as seven devils. Modern theologians interpret them as convulsions, similar to the man who lived among the tombs, a form of disability. Others write of a goddess cult con- temporary with Jesus, which had seven steps of initiation.
[One important point here is that Luke who makes this comment about Mary of Magdala often describes women as needy and requiring healing contrasted with male disciples who choose to follow Jesus. It is possible that Luke's only explanation for a woman being authoritative on matters of faith is that she is possessed or grateful, (e.g. the slave woman in Philippi. Acts 16.16-18)] (Esther de Boer p.50)
Whatever the truth, the second thing we know for certain about Mary, is that she came from Magdala.
Magdala was probably a prosperous trading town by the Sea of Galilee. It was probably on the modern site of Mejdel - Jesus would certainly have visited the town, it being six miles from Capernaum.
The inhabitants of Magdala were probably farmers who cultivated the fruitful plain of Gennesar, and fishermen active on the Sea of Galilee. It is possible that fabric was sent to Magdala to be dyed.
Mary, assuming she was a youngish woman when she travelled around with Jesus, would have heard about the terrible battle in Magdala during a rebellion put down by Romans in 53 B.C.E. when 30,000 prisoners were taken. The historian Josephus describes this costly encounter.
She may well have still been alive during the later battle (67 C.E.) of which Josephus writes
"The entire lake was stained with blood and crammed with corpses, for there was not a single survivor. During the days that followed, a horrible stench hung over the region." 3
Mary would have seen violence in her life and Jesus' crucifixion was one part of that. She would have suffered from the Roman occupation of Magdala - a town with a reputation for bloody uprising.
She was probably, almost certainly Jewish - as she is named by the Jewish name for the city (the Roman name was Tarichea), and she is the only woman who is not described and defined by her family: Mary, mother of Jesus; Mary, mother of James; Mary, sister of Martha and Lazarus.
(Incidentally, the only reference to sexual licence is not in the Bible itself, but in a Rabbinic midrash on the Book of Lamentations, where Magdala is mentioned as somewhere where adultery is practised.)
Mary of Magdala was almost certainly in the inner circle:-
When the women are at the tomb on Easter Day, in Luke's account (24.7-8) the angel says to the woman "Remember how he told you that the Son of Man must be delivered up..."
If we look back in the gospel, we see that it was when Jesus was in a small intimate group that he did indeed say this (Luke 9. 18-22). It is clear then that Mary of Magdala was a disciple of Jesus, even without the title.
Why had Mary followed Jesus? Leaving aside Luke's only explanation - of need or gratitude -
She grew up in a city that had suffered and was yet to suffer terrible bloodshed - she could then have been receptive to Jesus' non-violent message of "Blessed are the peacemakers".
In Magdala, Jewish and Greek culture lived side-by-side under Roman occupation. Different nationalities came to trade in Magdala - perhaps she was drawn to Jesus' teaching on unity bonding people across external differences.
The natural surroundings of Magdala were rich. Jesus' nature metaphors and farming stories would have chimed in with her experience of a rich natural environment. 4
It is clear that she was close to Jesus and was a key figure in his inner circle. His imminent torture and execution must have caused her great grief. Yet a reclaimed picture of Mary of Magdala, rather than the composite "holy whore" Mary Mag- dalene, gives us a model of discipleship for our lives particularly through times of suffering, that is remarkable and unique.
Unlike the artists' depictions of Mary across the centuries where she is bowed down and shamed, she is a woman who stands her ground and lives courageously.
She is "standing" watching as Jesus is crucified in both Luke and John's accounts (Luke 23.49, John 19.25) and in the reading from John 20 we heard this evening, she is standing and she turns repeatedly, indicating that she is still standing. She is not "the woman on the floor" of art. She, along with Mary, Jesus' mother, steadies her gaze on the suffering of the man she followed. She stays when other disciples fled or denied him. She was, in being present at Jesus' crucifixion, undoubtedly in personal danger - although she might have hoped that as a woman she would be less prominent than if she had been a man.
Mary of Magdala is a woman of independent means who was faithful to Jesus be- yond his death. The reading from John 20 is a core text for our reclaimed under- standing of Mary of Magdala. Directly contradicting Paul's instructions to Timo- thy in his first letter "I permit no woman to teach or have authority over a man: she is to keep silent." (1 Tim 2.11-13)
Mary is given a new role. Jesus tells her
She is not to be silent, she is to speak.
She is explicitly to teach her brothers by speaking of her experience.
She is to be an agent of God's revelation to the world. 5
Mary of Magdala is a Biblical saint who speaks to us in our modern world:
There is a text, written at the latest in 150 C.E., discovered at the Nag Hammadi site, known as the Gospel of Mary. In it, Peter, Andrew, Levi and Mary of Magdala discuss the path of discipleship after the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. In this, and other early texts discovered this century, such as the Gospel of Thomas, and the Gospel of Philip; she is depicted as a person with great insight and an intense spiritual relationship with Jesus.
One of the sayings in the Gospel of Mary is that "the fetter of oblivion is temporal." This is a saying that could well be applied to Mary herself. She has been trapped in church tradition that has very little basis in the Bible, and is contradicted by other contemporary writings.
In the Gospel of Mary, she addresses Peter, Andrew and Levi.
"They were grieved and wept greatly, saying "How shall we go to the nations and preach the gospel of the kingdom of the Human One? If they did not spare him, how will they spare us?"
Then Mary stood up, embraced them all, and said to her brothers -
"Do not weep and do not grieve, and do not make two hearts, for his grace will be with you all and will protect you. Rather let us praise his greatness, because he has prepared us. He has made us Human Being." 6
For Mary of Magdala, it is her very humanity that is God's preparation for suffering and for praise. She embraces her humanity in this way, and so it is doubly ironic that she has become a symbol for particularly women, but men too, rejecting what can loosely be called "the flesh" and preferring "the spirit".
I am not of course claiming that these events actually happened as portrayed in the Gospel of Mary but that in her arguments with Peter, it is clear that in the 2nd century, issues of male/female leadership were live.
The ancient tradition of Mary of Magdala as apostola apostolorum ("apostle of the apostles") is used today by Pope John Paul II. However, her place as a Biblical saint, as an apostle, as a woman who spoke with authority about what she knew of the suffering and pain of life, is still in doubt in churches today.
Mary of Magdala is a constant figure in Jesus' last days. She is standing close by as he dies, and she visits the grave after his death. She is not "in hiding for fear of the Jews" as John describes the eleven disciples.
Mary of Magdala draws us closer to the events of Holy Week. She shows us
- Solidarity with the dying Christ and thus with the suffering of humanity in our world today.
- Sympathy, even empathy with those who are tortured and executed in our world today.
- Fidelity to a person beyond death : she faces his death courageously and un- flinchingly.
- She is a public person, not hiding her allegiance to, or her grief for, Christ.
- She displays imagination to overcome personal resignation and global fears that may have paralysed her : that is, she is receptive to the news of Jesus's resurrection, and her interpretation of her meeting with the 'gardener' set her free, and set her feet on solid ground.
- She displayed endurance and courage when her good news and her new insights had to be defended - when she was not believed.7
A central question of any culture or community is; Who has the power to tell the story of God? As the tradition of Mary Magdalene has been handed down, she has been handed over; to betray her has been easy, as she has, with Mary the mother of Jesus, fulfilled two stereotypes of women: virgin and whore. Only last Sunday I heard a man describe Mary Magdalene as the fallen woman with a hint of excited pity. She is still proclaimed prostitute.
So what does this re-claiming Mary Magdalene mean? Perhaps it doesn't matter that we made a mistake about her past; we can put it right now. Is it just a matter of scholarship?
No it isn't; because just as the tradition about Mary Magdalene as holy whore led women and men to believe in a particular way about their respective roles, so this reclamation can infuse and inspire Christian women today.
1. Speaking publicly about what we believe to be true
Mary Magdalene spoke publicly about what she knew to be true, about her own experience of faith.
Down the centuries, a few women have followed her; Julian of Norwich, Catherine of Sienna, Teresa of Avila being three of the headline names - and the truth is that women's experience of God, prayers, thoughts and dreams has always been there but not spoken out or recorded as authoritative in the way that men's experience has. In our own church communities today, any specific reference to women's writing, preaching or praying is often greeted not with calmness or even enthusiasm but with a sentence containing the words "politically correct" in it. It is still the case in Church and Society that our public spaces, public conversations and interpretations are dominated, both in numbers and emphasis by men. It is quite a subtle culture that has devalued the concept of political correctness and has made it soulless, humourless and derisory. It is still the case, as the Guardian journalist Jill Tweedie wrote that it seems that men's interaction with each other is based on the assumption that they all know "what's what"; the shared pool of knowledge is assumed and discussed without too much explanation for the uninitiated. There are of course many other axes that cut across gender; education, racial and cultural background being some of them, but that doesn't alter the fact that gender is an important factor.
Feminism, as a word and as a concept, is defined by men and then by many women, particularly of my generation as "passe".
This is a sorry state the Christian churches are in. If you'll pardon the pun, certainly within church hierarchies, gender is not a "sexy" subject to acknowledge; words like feminist, female, male, gender or sexist have a faded look to them, they feel stale and they often generate more heat than light. Please don't misunderstand me here; I want to address these issues and am happy to call myself a feminist. (I'm reminded here of the writer Rebecca West's famous remark, "People call me a feminist only when I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat.")
"Speaking publicly" does not only mean giving talks; it means speaking in a Bible study group, or in front of the minister who you suspect might disagree with you. It means being on the reading rota at church - and encouraging other women to lead the prayers. It also means using as far as we are able natural forms of expression when we talk about our faith to anyone - woman or man. It means being sensitised and staying alive to whether there is a balance in our own faith community; that women and men are helping to tell the story of God.
It is true that the majority of people in our congregations are women and that much of women's spirituality is by definition expressed privately; but it is undoubtedly true that the prevailing culture of Christian churches is very often male; the leaders, the stewards, the musicians, the language, the ceremony, the management structure, the decision-making process.
How women exercise authority is also part of this element of Mary Magdalene's story. An anxiety about collusion in a system where we "don't quite fit", combined with a periodic confidence in our own ability to "do it differently" can either paralyse women or encourage the "Queen Bee" syndrome; following the example of our only female Prime Minister who appointed only two women to junior positions in government in eleven years. Despite these temptations, women are finding an authoritative voice and exercising ecclesiastical power; and thank God for all those women in our churches who are constantly breaking new ground; we stand on their shoulders.
One of our challenges is to re-shape and re-mould church structures - together - to resist the temptation to "run a tight ship" charting our own parish (or ecumenical equivalent) course; to use, perhaps a model of God sisters, or its successor, the pejorative "gossip" to be in touch ecumenically, up and down and preferably across our hierarchies, lay and ordained.
What Mary Magdalene teaches us is that it is part of a woman's God given calling to speak publicly about what she believes. Women's spirituality as a whole is not to be defined or confined to the private sphere.
The American novelist Barbara Kingsolver published this year a beautiful novel called "The Poisonwood Bible". In it she describes a woman who is living in a home situation that is survivable but is crushing her. She illustrates a flavour of what I am trying to articulate about women in Christianity.
"If there was still some part of a beautiful heathen girl in me, a girl drawn to ad- miration like a moth to moonlight; and if her heart still pounded as Georgia nights when the peeper frogs called out from roadside ditches, she was too dumb- founded to speak up for herself Once or twice .... / may have locked the doors and breathed into my own mouth in the mirror, putting on red lipstick to do the housework. But rarely. I encountered my spirit less and less. " 8
To proclaim the fragile, unshakeable miracles of our daily lives as women is a God given task; to "encounter our spirit more and more" and to speak it out.
This means that women can never be "chaplains to the status quo"; we will always be urging the Christian churches to be midwife, bringing to birth faith and hope as Mary did on Easter morning. And sometimes, perhaps on days like these, we can put on red lipstick to do the housework.
2. Ritual Purity
Christian women are vitally placed in society. As we have witnessed the betrayal of Mary Magdalene inviting more centuries of "tainting" language about us, so we speak from our historical and current experience to challenge notions of ritual purity wherever we find them. Christian women, along with our Jewish and Muslim sisters, have endured centuries of "tainting" language that was repeated in the Church of England over the debates preceding and after the ordination of women. The insults we have had to bear are nothing in comparison with the extreme notions of racial purity that lead to rape being used as an instrument of war in Rwanda and Central Europe or the sick notions of racial and sexual purity that fired the imagination of the nail bomber who terrorised London in April 1999; all of these the notions of sexual purity that seek to exclude, to control and to "neaten" what is our God given gift of sexuality.
For us in 21st Century UK, it is much less likely, thank God, (although, of course, not impossible) that we will encounter extreme notions of purity that seek to bind us, circumcise us, beat us or rape us.
But notions of ritual purity are alive in our church communities today. We can for example, become denominational purists (although your presence at an ecumenical gathering such as this indicates, I hope, that I'm preaching to the converted!). However there is in Christendom a kind of purism that in ecumenical dialogue leads to everyone secretly thinking that their denomination has actually got it right; the right balance between Word and Sacrament, priestcraft and lay participation; church order and theological bias.
Possibly more prevalent are notions of theological purity; that so-called conservatives have nothing to learn from so-called liberals, that self confessed catholics have nothing to learn from evangelicals and so on. There is here too a fear of "contamination" as we decide daily whose voice to listen to in the media, which books to buy, whose talks to go to, which church to visit.
As Christian women, after the example of Mary Magdalene, is it not one of the voices we have, that the discernment of purity is as damaging as it is noble? In Church and in society women have something to say about our own experience of mess, of being labelled "other" and, stereotypically, "illogical, mysterious, whimsical", even "unreliable". There's often something not quite "clean" and "straightforward" in language about women and so we may find that for us the whole notion of purity is at the least unhelpful, at the most bankrupt.
Because we have outrageously been seen as a polluting influence, particularly in religion, we reclaim Mary Magdalene and oppose such labelling racially, sexually or in religions.
Wherever we discern the misuse of power on the grounds of purity, whenever we see a group of people ringfenced as untouchable or undesirable, we have authority to speak.
3. Communion with one another
From Mary Magdalene's Biblical story and her story subsequently, Christian women can rediscover the notion of solidarity and communion with one another.
Whatever our role in our own community as women, it is important that we don't deny one another or wilfully misunderstand one another; we can celebrate the enormous diversity among women. It's not enough for example for women in the West to say, "It's over - the battle's won - everything's OK for me," when two thirds of the world's refugees are women. It is not enough for Anglican priests and Free Church ministers to say, "It's over - the battle's won - everything's OK for me," when women are still excluded from the episcopate and so many of our sisters in the Roman Catholic Church are still waiting to be priested. Similarly, those of us who have stayed in the institutional Church need to hear the voices of those who have left, those who have charged the Church with irredeemable sexism.
Those who move in the public spaces of the Church should affirm and value women who teach and share the faith at home.
We must ourselves watch for an over - anxiety about ritual purity; as if there were a set of purity rules amongst women for how we are to think, believe and behave. We are bound to other women across continents and across the centuries.
This is not simply an affirmation of individuality, a therapy- speak "I'm OK - You're OK" although that is of course important. This is a recognition that as Christian women we are bound together by our feminine nature and our Christian nurture, and that while we may hold different opinions, we are one in the spirit of God.
To be from time to time self consciously female interpreters of Scripture, Tradition, Experience and Human Society is a God-given privilege and one that requires us to acknowledge and accept ourselves as women. We are led then to look at the women in our own personal family histories, to find women in public life with whom we are bound, to value our friends as women and to recognise that our own personal journey is shaped by these women as we value our different yet intertwined lives.
For myself, I'm not too anxious about which gifts women are born with and which gifts we develop; all I know is that from my own experience, women's gifts have been to be fiercely protective, to be grief-stricken, to listen, to be attentive, to bring to birth life in others, to dream, to prophesy and to encourage; to wait, to sing, to cry more easily and to endure. These are some of our God-given songs to sing with our own voices.
Mary Magdalene and those women who follow her life of discipleship are women of courage, of faith and of integrity.
We still need from time to time to talk amongst ourselves, to claim our histories across denomination, cultural and religious boundaries and to celebrate what binds us to one another.
We celebrate today the whole ministry of women as we create spaces in public religion and private prayer, as we read Scripture amongst ourselves and in the face of the whole congregation. As we pray to God in words we have found; as we speak publicly about what we know to be true, even when we are not heard or believed. As we challenge notions of ritual purity whenever they exclude and abuse and as we affirm that women as well as men are made in God's image; we share the grace, the privilege and the delight of being women with faith in God and faith in ourselves.
St Paul's Cathedral July 2000
1 Marina Warner p.225
2 Esther de Boer p.22
3Josephus, Jewish War III, 529
4 Esther de Boer p.41
5Ingrid Maisch p.181
6Gospel of Mary, 9.20
7 Ingrid Maisch p. 181
8 Barbara Kingsolver "The Poisonwood Bible"
Esther de Boer; Mary Magdalene: beyond the myth, London 1997
Susan Haskins; Mary Magdalen. Myth and Metaphor, London 1993
Ingrid Maisch; Mary Magdalene: the image of a woman through the centuries, Minnesota, 1998
Marina Warner; Alone of all Her Sex, London 1976
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