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Women’s Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations: contents

‘The New is Elsewhere’:
Women’s Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations

Doctoral Thesis by Patricia Marlette Black BA, MEd,
Queensland University of Technology, 1999.

Table of Contents

Key Words ii
Abstract iii
Table of Contents v
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xii
Statement of Original Authorship xiv
Acknowledgments xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Research 1
  Discontinuous Change: The Contemporary Context Of Leadership 2
  A Paradigm Shift: The Historical/Cultural Context Of Leadership 4
  Nonprofit Organisations: The Organisational Context Of Leadership 7
1.2 Research Problem and Research Questions 15
1.3 Significance of the Research 17
1.4 Methodology 19
1.5 Definitions 20
1.6 Outline of the Thesis 22
1.7 Conclusion 23
Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework 24
2.1 Introduction 24
2.2 The Mechanistic World View 25
  Leadership In The Mechanistic World View 29
  Some Challenges To The Mechanistic World View 32
2.3 The Holistic World View 33
  Leadership In The Holistic World View 38
2.4 Conclusion 41
Chapter 3 Review of Relevant Literature 43
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2 The Dominant Imges 44
  The Lone Ranger Image Of Leadership 45
  The Peter Stuyvesant Image Of Leadership 45
  The Godfather Image Of Leadership 47
  The Pied Piper Image Of Leadership 48
  The Braveheart Image Of Leadership 49
  Five Images - One Understanding Of Leadership 51
3.3 The Dominant Agendas 54
  The Intellectual Agenda For Leadership 55
  The Management Agenda For Leadership 56
  The Behavioural Agenda For Leadership 57
  A New Journey On An Old Path 59
  The Women In Management Agenda For Leadership 62
  Something Old, Something New 69
3.4 Conclusion 70
Chapter 4 Methodology: Perspectives and Assumptions 73
4.1 Introduction 73
4.2 Qualitative Methodology 74
4.3 Symbolic Interactionism: Key Emphasis 76
4.4 Symbolic Interactionism: The Assumptions that Underpin This Research 78
  Experience 78
  Empathy 79
  Interaction 85
4.5 Patterns, Parallels and Pointers 87
4.6 Conclusion 88
Chapter 5 Research Design and Method 90
5.1 Introduction 90
5.2 Culteral Review Process 92
  Research Questions 94
  Selection of Sites 96
  Selection of Participants 99
  Researcher’s Role Management 102
5.3 Data Collection Process 104
  In-Depth Interviewing 104
  Other Sources Of Data 107
  Number Of Interviews 109
  Timing Of Interviews 109
  Location Of Interviews 110
  Preparing For Interviews And Interview Format 111
  Approaching Potential Participants 112
  Managing, Recording And Protecting Data 113
  Issues In Data Collection 114
5.4 Data Analysis Process 115
  Immersion In The Texts 115
  Rummaging 116
  Categorising And Coding 116
  Critical Dialogue And Writing 117
5.5 Integrity of Research 118
5.6 Conclusion 120
Chapter 6 The Participants and Their Organisations 122
6.1 Introduction 122
6.2 Descriptive Data About the Formal Participants 125
  Employment Profile 125
  Leadership Path 128
  Self-Perception as Leaders 130
6.3 Descriptive Data About the Research Organisations 138
  Organisational Context And Decision Making Processes 139
  Organisational Purpose 142
6.4 Conclusion 144
Chapter 7 Women’s Understanding of Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations 146
7.1 Introduction 146
7.2 Images of Leadership 146
  Connection Images 147
  Life/Movement Images 148
  Other Images 149
7.3 Recipe for effective Leadership 150
7.4 Participant’s Perceptions of the Relationship between Designated Leaders and Non-Positional Leaders 154
7.5 Women’s Understanding of Power in their Exercise of Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations 159
7.6 Some Recurring Themes 165
7.7 Conclusion 176
Chapter 8 Women’s Experience of Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations 177
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 What the Participants Hope to Achieve Through their Exercise of Leadership 178
  Service 179
  Perceived Inequity 180
  Search For Excellence 182
8.3 Issues Facing the Participants in their Exercise of Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations 183
  The On-Going Development Of Processes And Structures To Best Achieve The Organisational Mission



  Resources 187
  Membership 189
  Organisational Purpose And Identity 191
  Gender Issues 191
  Social Issues 193
  Inclusion/Diversity 194
  Over-Commitment 195
  Communication 196
8.4 The Participant’s Practice of Leadeship 196




  Communicating 199
  Lobbying 200
  Other Leadership Strategies 202
8.5 Conflict Experienced by the Participants in their Experience of Leadership in Community-Profit Organisations 206
8.6 Conclusion 211
Chapter 9 An Invitation to Dance: Conclusions and Implications 213
9.1 Introduction 213
9.2 New Understandings and Practices of Leadeship: The Choreography 215
9.3 Distinctive Features of a Holistic World View: The Rhythm and the Beat 219
9.4 Responding of Discontinuous change: A Flexible and Spontaneous seies of Movements 222
9.5 Limitations 223
9.6 Conclusion 224


List of Appendices   227
Appendix A (i) Cultural Review Interview Guide 228
  (ii) Outline for Personal Letters to be sent to Cultural Review Participants 229
Appendix B (i) Consent form 230
  (ii) Background Information Given to Potential Research Participants 232
Appendix C The International Classification of Nonprofit Organisation: explanatory notes 237
Appendix D (i) Sample Letter to Gatekeppers Organisations selected as Research Sites 244
  (ii) Sample Letter to Possible Participants
(Participants Suggested by Gatekeepers of Organisations Selected as Researchj sites)
  (iii) Letter Accompanying Transcripts sent to Participants 246
  (iv) Letter accompanying Summary of Research Findings Sent to Participants 247
Appendix E Interview Guide 248
Appendix F Headings for the Reports About Each Node Generated in the Index System of ‘Nudist’ 250
Bibliography   255
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