The literal sense.
- Intended scope.
We must know what the human
author wanted to say before we can come to any conclusions as to what God is
In many texts we have to
discern the teaching by analysing the literary form the scriptural author is
We may not ascribe statements
or assertions to a biblical author which lie outside his intended
We have to distinguish
substantial statements by the author from rationalizations and popular
reasonings in which he expresses his own human opinions.
To understand the Gospels correctly we need to
know the way in which the Gospels came about:
through oral catechesis
and written records
composition of the Gospels of Matthew,
- Introduction to Gospel (name, date, inspiration, biographies, written copies,
- Jesus Christ (prophetic teaching,
images, conflicts, rabbinical style)
- Oral and written traditions (oral traits,
Pauls use of oral sources)
- Matthews Gospel (author, sources, structure, community, Jewish traits,
themes of authority,
- Marks Gospel (author, structure, character, themes of Peter,
- Luke Gospel (author, structure, character, hellenist milieu,
themes of joy,
meal, business, Jerusalem, witness, women, Mary,
Luke's portrait of Mary,discipleship, womens ministry)
- Johns Gospel (in preparation)
- Interpretation (in preparation)
Women in Old
1000 BC - 30 AD
in society and religion
Regarding rabbinical teaching on women:
- Rabbinical Tradition on
the Role of WomenHayim G. Perelmuter in 'Women and Priesthood:
- "The Role of Women in
Judaism", by Jonathan Sachs, in 'Man, Woman, and Priesthood'
- "Gender and the Nature of the
Divine", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The Female Experience and the Nature of
- "Sex Roles and the Relation of
Power to Gender", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The Female Experience and the
Nature of the Divine'
- "The Relation of Gender to
Participation in Cult", by Judith Ochshorn, in 'The Female Experience
and the Nature of the Divine'
Jesus Christ and women
28 - 30 AD
Jesus did not tackle male dominance directly.
established a new priesthood that includes a radical openness to women.
Women were present at the Last Supper
Read: Jesus from an
Ecofeminist Perspective, by Ivonne Gebara.
On the Last Supper:
- Meals of the Community,
by Suzanne Tunc, from Des Femmes aussi Suivant Jésus, Paris 1998,
- Bible, liturgy concur: women
were there, by Marjorie Reiley Maguire in 'National Catholic
Reporter', June 5, 1998
- Do This in Memory of Me
by Irene McCormack in 'Compass Theology Review' 25 (1991) no 4, pp.
- The Women (and Mary?) at Luke's
Supper by Tony Cassidy CSSR Talk given to the Ecumenical Society of the
Blessed Virgin Mary. Canterbury, 29th October 2007
- Priesthood and Jesus' Jewish
inspirationby Aaron Milavec (some extracts from "Salvation Is from the
Jews" (John 4:22): Saving Grace in Judaism and Messianic Hope in
Christianity, Liturgical Press, July 2007.
On appointing only men among the twelve apostles:
Scriptural Argument in Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, R. Bieringer,
Bijdragen 62 (2001) pp. 129 - 142;
- The twelve apostles
were men - -, I. Raming, Orientierung 56
(1992) pp. 143-146.
- Did Christ conform to social
myth?, J. Wijngaards, DCROWP 1986, pp. 36-46.
- The Ministry of Women according to the New
Testament, E. M. Tetlow, WMNT 1980, ch. 3.
- The Role of Women According to Jesus and
the Early Church, R. J. Karris, WPFD 1978, pp.
- The Biblical Evidence, Ch.
Evans, YWP 1978, pp. 16-29.
- Biblical Commission Report, Can Women
- The Twelve, E. Schüssler
Fiorenza, WP 1977, pp. 114-121.
- Did Jesus Exclude Women from
Priesthood?, S. M. Schneiders, WP 1977,
- Pro and Con: The Ordination of Women in the
New Testament, R. H. Fuller, TNTO 1976, pp. 1-11.
- Christ, Revelation, and the Ordination of
Women, A. A. Vogel, TNTO 1976, pp. 42-51.
- The Authority of Scripture, P.
Lakeland, CWBP 1975, pp. 31-46.
- Women and Ministry, E. Carroll,
Theological Studies 36 (1975) pp. 660 - 687.
- Holy Scripture, H. van der Meer,
WPCC 1973, pp. 10-45.
Women in the Early Apostolic
30 - 80 AD
Paul endorsed the fundamental equality in Christ of women
Women took part in the Church's apostolate.
Paul asked women
to wear a veil in the assembly to forestall cultural clashes.
On Specific Pauline texts:
Women among the disciples of the
80 AD - 120 AD
In a reaction against Gnostics, some local Church leaders
forbid women to speak in the assemblies.
Read on women in the Early Christian Church:
On Ephesians 'Bride and Bridegroom'