Jesus Responds to John Paul II
on the Occasion of his Definitive Exclusion of Women from the Ordained Priesthood
by Dr Aaron Milavec
Text published on this web site by kind permission of its author Dr. Aaron Milavec.
Our brother and father, John Paul II, has strayed from the path of Jesus, his avowed master. Jesus uplifted the experience of women, accepted their fresh initiatives, and boldly confronted those men who tried to put them back in their place. Our brother, John Paul II, meanwhile has spoken prematurely on the issue of the exclusion of women from ordination (ORDINATIO SACERDOTALIS), and he has used the name and example of Jesus to reinforce this ban. In what follows, an attempt will be made to reexamine (a) the shaping of the judgment to exclude women from ordination to the priesthood and (b) Jesus practice of upholding womens experiences and initiatives.
==============The Shaping of the Judgment to Exclude Women================
The issue of Jesus relation to women has come up again and again as both sides of the womens ordination issue appeal to Jesus in order to give authority to their respective positions. With Catholics privately and publicly divided on this issue, it was inevitable that some bishops would press Rome for some sort of definitive solution lest official silence leave open a false hope on the part of many. Thus, Paul VI assigned the issue to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) in 1975. The CDF, in turn, asked for a report from the Pontifical Biblical Commission (PBC) on this issue.
The PBC sent its final report to the CDF in June of 1976. The Commissions report concluded that, on the basis of the Christian Scriptures alone, the issue cannot be decided in a clear way and once and for all [time] (96). This is so, the report declared, because the New Testament never uses the technical term hiereus [priest"] for the Christian ministry" (92). But, even beyond this, the role of leadership in the [early church] communities . . . was always held by men in conformity with Jewish custom (95). The PBC report, consequently, did not think that decisions made within the cultural conditions prevailing in the first century ought to automatically predetermine what the church might decide would be right and proper within altered cultural circumstances. The CDF quietly shelved the PBC report and ignored its findings. Then it produced its own report which, as things turned out, was the only report officially published. Thus, from the very beginning, the CDF saw fit to ignore the results of a very legitimate condustation and collaboration process which it had initiated. Here, again, the path of Peter was ignored.
When the CDF issued its final report in October of 1976 under the title, INTER INSIGNIORES (English title: ON THE QUESTION OF THE ADMISSION OF WOMEN TO THE MINISTERIAL PRIESTHOOD), it unambiguously came to a negative conclusion: [T]he Church, in fidelity to the example of the Lord, does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination (CDF: 4). In order to arrive at this judgment, the CDF quietly borrowed a few ideas from the PBC report while entirely ignoring its conclusions. By way of presenting its own conclusions, the CDF report did not offer any hint, not even a footnote, which would have allowed anyone to know that the PBC had been consulted. The members of the PBC, it should be remembered, are exemplary scholars chosen, in part, for their loyalty to orthodoxy and to the Vatican. When they met in April of 1976, they voted 17 to 0 in favor of affirming that the New Testament does not settle in a clear way and once and for all the question as to whether women can be ordained as priests. The PBC also voted 12 to 5 in favor to declaring that Christs plan would not be transgressed should the Church elect to confer such ordination on women.
What this makes clear is that, from the very beginning, the CDF saw fit to ignore the results of the legitimate consultation and collaboration process which it had initiated. In principle, a process of consultation does not constrain the judgment of those who consult. The CDF could, for example, have chosen to openly acknowledge and refute the judgments of the PBC point by point. Yet, when the CDF elected to suppress the fact that a high level consultation had taken place and that conscientious scholars in the PBC had arrived at divergent judgments, then an element of bad faith was introduced. The path of Peter was ignored.
Despite the flawed process, the CDF report is extraordinary in three ways:
1. The report openly acknowledges that its negative conclusion will perhaps cause pain (CDF: 5). This is the first time that an official Vatican document expressed sensitivity towards those would suffer due to a decision being made on their behalf. The report later makes mention that some women feel they have a vocation to the priesthood (CDF: 16). It is perhaps to these women and their supporters that the framers of the document acknowledge that their conclusion will perhaps cause pain (CDF: 5).
2. The CDF report never falls into the trap of supposing that either Jesus or his disciples thought of themselves as priests. Rather, the report consistently affirms that, even though Jesus attitude toward women was quite different from that of his milieu (CDF: 6), he did not, nonetheless, entrust the apostolic charge (CDF: 7) to any women, not even to his own mother. In like fashion, when considering the practice of the early church, the report correctly notes that the apostles had worked with certain women for the sake of the gospel; yet, at no time was there a question of conferring ordination on these women (CDF: 8). Here again, the CDF report never suggests that these early ordinations involve priesthood as such. Rather the surmise is that, if the apostolic charge of Jesus and the ordinations of the early church were reserved entirely to men, then it follows that the ordained ministry of the church today ought to follow the same practice.
3. The CDF report is also noteworthy in so far as it squarely acknowledges that, as culture changes, the practice of the church can and sometimes must change. The report openly acknowledges that some of the apostolic ordinances relative to women, as illustrated by the obligation of women to wear a veil on their heads (1 Cor 11:2-16), were culturally conditioned and accordingly have been changed (CDF: 9). When considering Jesus exclusion of women from the apostolic charge, however, the report takes the stand that, in this instance, Jesus was not culturally determined precisely because he was known to have opposed the discrimination pacticed with regard to women:
No one himself has ever provedand it is clearly impossible to provethat this attitude [of Jesus] is inspired only by social and cultural reasons. As we have seen, an examination of the Gospels shows on the contrary that Jesus broke with the prejudices of his time, by widely contravening the discrimination practiced with regard to women. One therefore cannot maintain that, by not calling women to enter the group of Apostles, Jesus was simply being guided by reasons of expediency (CDF: 9).
In sum, while the CDF report is remarkably sensitive to modern scholarship and to the pain it might cause; nonetheless, its bottom line is that Christ chose those he wanted (Mark 3:13) (CDF: 16). Accordingly, if the Roman Catholic Church continues to choose only men for the priestly ministry, she continues to do so, not because of any prejudice against women shaped by patriarchal patterns of culture, but solely because she is faithful to Jesus Christ.
=======Jesus Practice of Upholding Women Experiences and Initiatives========
While the CDF report is exemplary, it does fail to note three distinctive aspects of Jesus interaction with women which provide points of departure for resolving the issue of womens ordination within the modern church. I will treat each in turn:
1. The Synoptics summarize Jesus ministry by saying, He went throughout Galilee, preaching in their synagogues (Mark 1:39 and par.). Consider the situation of Jesus teaching in the synagogues of Galilee. Are we to imagine that Jesus was exclusively surrounded my men or were their women in the synagogues as well who sat quietly and attentively behind the men? If these women were there, did Jesus ever take them into account? It would be impossible to decide this on the basis of any direct evidence. On the basis of indirect evidence, however, much can be decided.
What indirect evidence? To begin with, examine the experience implied in the parables of Jesus. When you do so, you will note that some of the parables of Jesus directly speak to the experiences of men. For example:
The Sower (Mark 4:3-8, Matthew 13:3-8, Luke 8:5-8) The Wicked Husbandman (Mark 12:1-11, Matthew 21:33-44, Luke 20:9-18) The Doorkeeper (Mark 13:33-37, Luke 12:35-38) The Fishermans Net (Matthew 13:47-50) The Lost Sheep (Matthew 18:12-14, Luke 15:4-7)
These five parables appeal to the tasks and experiences which traditional Jewish society associated exclusively with men. Women could observe men doing these things; but, by and large, they normally would not be expected to relate to these tasks since, in the normal course of events, they would rarely, if ever, have a chance to perform them. On the other hand, Jesus has a set of parables which specifically featured the experience of women. These would be the following:
The Yeast (Matthew 13:33, Luke 13:20f) The Ten Maidens (Matthew 25:1-13) The Lost Coin (Luke 15:5-10) The Unjust Judge (Luke 18:1-8)
Here again, men could be expected to have observed women kneading yeast into dough and have witnessed the brides maids going out with lamps to welcome the groom and his friends. However, it could be assumed that men would not be expected to relate to these roles since they would never have an occasion to assume such roles themselves.
In reading the evidence here, one must keep traditional Jewish society in mind. In contemporary society, some men do take pride in making loaves of bread from scratch. In the world of Jesus, however, the grinding of grain, the kneading of dough, and the baking of bread were the daily chores of women. In contemporary society, men and women usually arrive together at the church for a wedding. After the wedding, they go together to the reception. No one has to wait. Within traditional societies, however, the bride and her female attendants sometimes waited for hours in her home while the friends of the groom took their merry old time assembling at the grooms home for a bachelors party before walking together to the brides house where the wedding was to take place. What does it say about Jesus that he would not only notice that the women were kept waiting but, as in the case of his parable, kept waiting for such a long time that many fell asleep and their lamps went out? The men, it must be remembered, were having a bachelors party and, in their merry- making, not expected to be attentive to the women who were waiting with the bride.
The Gospel writers implicitly recognize that Jesus told Kingdom parables using experiences which were sometimes proper to women and sometimes proper to men. This evidence indirectly testifies that Jesus wished the Kingdom to be intelligible to both women and men. Within the synagogue, therefore, it can be presumed that Jesus occasionally directly addressed those women who sat behind the men and who were, in most cases, entirely lost sight of by the men who sat around Jesus. Jesus, however, did not lose sight of them. On the contrary, Jesus was sufficiently interested and sympathetic to women as women that he deliberately framed his teaching so as to hold up their proper experiences as precious and as vehicles for understanding the message of God.
The inclusivity of Jesus teaching style has much to offer todays church. Many male pastors preach and teach well; yet, up to this point I have never yet heard even sympathetic pastors make use of womens experiences by way of conveying the message of the Gospel. Our brother and father, John Paul II, might do well, therefore, to hold up before those who are charged with teaching and preaching the image of Jesus on the point. If presbyteral and episcopal ordination is to be confined to men alone, then, needless to say, the inclusive practice of Jesus must challenge the present propensity of men to emotionally and psychologically circumscribe their modes of teaching and organizing within exclusively male models. Thus, in a church where women are systematically excluded from ordained ministry, the ordained men have much to repent and much to amend if they are to hold Jesus as their example.
2. When Jesus spoke over the heads of the men surrounding him, he was also presenting before men his determination to hold up and honor the experience of women. This uncharacteristic sympathy toward women undoubtedly gave Jesus a reputation which circulated among the women in the courtyards of Galilee. As a result, women felt the urge to approach this teacher and prophet with a courage and a determination which they did not express toward other rabbis in their day. Think, for instance, of the woman who had suffered from a hemorrhage for twelve years (Matt 9:20, Mark 5:25). Such a women would be ritually impure and, as a result, prohibited from touching anyone or being touched (see Lev 15:20). Hence, she suffered from being denied the embrace of husband, of children, of friends. Moreover, unlike the dying girl of twelve who has a father to plead her cause, this woman has no father, no brother, no son who is sufficiently sympathetic to bring her case to the attention of Jesus. Driven by desperation, therefore, she leaves her home for the first time in twelve years and risks seeking to escape notice by touch[ing] the fringe of his garments (Matt 9:20). She knows full well that her condition is widely known and, if anyone of her family or neighbors spotted her, they would soundly shame her with a tongue-lashing that she would not soon forget. Jesus, meanwhile, does not disappoint her. In fact, he draws attention to her and confirms her initiative saying, Your faith has saved/healed you (Matt 9:22).
============Jesus Shames Men In Standing Up For Women==============
At still other points, Jesus deliberately shames the men in favoring of standing up for the initiatives taken by women. Consider the case narrated by Luke wherein a male dinner party is interrupted by a woman who is wayward in the city (Luke 7:37 literal tr.)a polite euphemism for a prostitute. Now that one of these women has barged into his home; Simon immediate thought must have been to have her removed quickly and quietly without disturbing his dinner guests. Given the fact that the men are reclining (7:36 RSV mistranslates this as sat) at table, the supposition might be that Simon is moderately well to do and that this is something of a formal dinner in Jesus honor. Jesus, instead of honoring his host, then precedes to shame him in favor of praising the initiative of the interloper. Men, especially in traditional societies, are expected to ban together and protect the status and reputation of other menespecially their benefactors. Not so, in the case of Jesus. He defends the outsider. The sole woman who has no voice, no standing, no dignity is uplifted as acting more honorably and hospitably than his host.
Given all the self-righteous anger that Christians have poured out upon prostitutes over the centuries, it seems incredible that Jesus never said a single harsh word to a prostitute nor, as in the case of this woman here, does he presume to be able to say, Go, and do not sin again. The harsh reality is that, in Jesus day, many women were caught up in prostitution and, given the existing social structures, their choices were either to sell their bodies to men or to allow themselves and those who depended upon them (e.g., underage children) to starve. Its not a pretty picture. But, then again, Jesus had to face up to the real evil existing in his day. And the real evil was not this woman. She herself was victim of a system largely created to serve the interests of men.
Marks Gospel also includes the story of a woman anointing Jesus during a meal at Simons house. Marks narrative, however, is recast in an entirely different direction. In Marks narrative, it is the disciples of Jesus who become the antagonists of the woman. Jesus, in this case, openly shames them while honoring the single, voiceless woman whom he stands up for. The objection to the women in Marks account has nothing to do with her reputation as a wayward woman or with her touching Jesus but focuses on her disregard of the poor which she demonstrates by her extravagance. As a result, some disciples (unnamed in Mark) reproached her verbally (14:5). Jesus immediately jumps to her defense by shaming the mistaken priorities of the disciples. Even beyond this, Mark is here clearly signalling to his readers that this nameless woman rightly anticipates the death of Jesus while the disciples have repeatedly hardened their hearts to it (Mark 8:32, 9:32, 10:32-37).
How rare it is to hear ordained men in the church upbraiding their fellow men in favor of the initiatives of women. Yet, this is precisely what Jesus did. A church, therefore, which would continue to reserve the role of preaching and presiding to men must reflect upon how willing and able they are to stand up for women (and all other underclasses of persons). If they cannot and do not, then what legitimacy can they have as continuing and as exemplifying the ministry of Jesus. Moreover, ordained men will need to overcome their shame and self-protectiveness by keeping quiet when women are being abused sexually, economically, socially. More women are beaten and sexually abused by their husbands every month than the total number of women who have abortions in a year; yet, the public outcry within church circles against abusive males in such instances is noticeable muted. Here again, an all-male clergy that tacitly aligns itself with the priviledged class of men within our society can be critiqued as having seriously lost touch with the example of Jesus.
===========Jesus Favors the Initiative of Mary Over the Traditionalism of Martha=============
3. In our third instance, Luke presents Jesus as mediating a dispute between two women, Martha and Mary (Luke 10:38-42). Martha is presented as the one who received him into her house (Luke 10:38). Mary is introduced as her sister who sat at the Lords feet and listened to his teaching (Luke 10:39). Herein the conflict erupts. Martha is fuming in the kitchen at the fact that Mary has abandoned the traditional womans role of occupying herself with preparing the food for her guests. Without any invitation from Jesus, she has seemingly elected to take her place sitting among the men around Jesus. So what could Martha do to remedy this situation? Seemingly, given her seniority over her sister, she could simply order Mary to give her a hand. But she doesnt. She prefers to take her complaint to Jesus and to chew him out! Lord, do you not care . . . ? (10:40) Martha typifies the traditional woman who can take charge when no man is present but, as soon as a suitable man appears, she honors him with the role of setting the household in order. Going even further, Martha may be gently chiding Jesus because he, after all, is the source of the problem in allowing Mary to continue to engage in Torah discussion with him and the other men. Here again, therefore, her expectation is that once he notices the unfair burden being placed on Martha, Jesus will set things right by promptly put Mary back into her rightful place.
Then the surprise comes! Jesus takes the side of the woman who has neglected the requirements of hospitality and neglected to come to the assistance of another woman in distress. As an astute pastor, he acknowledges that Martha is anxious and troubled, but this does not move him to resolve the situation by sending Mary (or even a few of the men?) into the kitchen. Rather, he sets forth a new principle: Mary has chosen the good/better portion which shall not be taken from her (10:42; see also 8:18).
Nowhere in the Gospel accounts do we come across Jesus making general pronouncements about women: Women ought to do this. . . . Women ought not to do that. . . . Even in the case of the tension between Martha and Mary, Jesus does not fall into the trap of supposing that he ought to impose one solution upon all women for all time. Instead, Martha is allowed to continue, with honor, in the traditional role she has cut out for herself; yet, she has to learn to do this, at least for the moment, without Mary, her sister. As for Mary, one cannot help but note that Jesus is not presented as having invited Mary to sit at his feet in the first place. Lukes narrative seems to imply that she takes the initiative herself, otherwise, Martha would have objected that Jesus had invited Mary to learn with the men and thus withdrawn her from service in the kitchen. Far from making any general pronouncements regarding women, therefore, Jesus is shown as the one who waits for women to take the initiative in their own behalf. When they do so, he then secures their initiative.
If this narrative offers some insight into the internal affairs of Lukes community, it would have to be in the direction of signaling that the men in charge do not have a pastoral plan which covers all cases and all contingencies. Part of the good news is that women are free to take the initiative without seeking prior approval from the men who are in charge. Madonna Kolbenschlag admirably develops this same theme on the basis of Lukes portrait of another Mary, that of the mother of Jesus (KISS SLEEPING BEAUTY GOODBY, pp. 82-88). On the other hand, the Martha and Mary narrative offers every reason for the men in charge to continue to honor those women who are quite content with everything as it has been.
Learning is liberating. Once Mary begins to hear Torah for herself at the feet of Jesus and then begins to acquire the art of applying it to her own life, she establishes herself as a disciple equal with the men. She can never go back to her former position of trusting that the men in her life entirely know and understand all those things (which were formerly beyond her grasp). More importantly, she can never go back to thinking that she need only to obediently submit to masculine direction to assure herself that she is entirely in harmony with what God would have her be and have her do. If every Jewish man gained his independence and his stature before men and before God by virtue of learning to read and to interpret Torah for himself, why should this same rule not apply also to women?
The beauty of this case is that it reflects the current conflict in the church among women respecting the proper roles to which God is calling them in their families, in their communities, and in their churches. The wisdom of Jesus is that he respected the legitimate freedom of choice exercised by both women without presupposing that he should regulate things in advance. Then, when faced with the call to reprimand Mary (and those who act like her), he ends up commending them without dishonoring the traditional roles which Martha (and those who act like her) regard as sacrosanct. Somewhere here there might be the main line of a solution for our brothers John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger who, when asked to mediate, have unfortunately settled for an either-or solution.
After reviewing the tradition surrounding Jesus, one can see how impossible it is to cast Jesus one-sidedly as an opponent to the ordination of women. If the Gospel tradition honored Jesus practice of addressing the good news of salvation to women directly using metaphors drawn from their own proper experience, then it must follow that the contemporary church, to be faithful, must do the same. If the Gospel tradition honored Jesus as refraining from making general pronouncements regarding the exclusion of women, then it must follow that the contemporary church, to be faithful, must be very cautious when it presumes to do so in the name of Jesus. Furthermore, if the Gospel tradition remembers Jesus as having openly received the initiatives of women and as having backed down those men bent upon enforcing social norms, then it must follow that the contemporary church, to be faithful, must follow the Divine Master by receiving the contemporary initiative of women. In the end, therefore, when the whole fabric of the Jesus tradition is reviewed, the CDF document represents a flawed and partial reading of the inspired and inspiring Gospel which the Church is bound to safeguard.
The CDF is correct when it posits the fact that Jesus did not send the women out two by two to preach, heal, and exorcise with the men. The CDF, however, enters upon soft ground when it interprets this fact as representing the sovereign will of the Divine Founder which rises above social and cultural conditioning. Anyone who takes the time to think about the condition of women at the time of Jesus would have to admit that the Gospels represent what might be called a quiet revolution. It would have been disastrous pastoral practice for Jesus to have called some women to join the men he was training and doubly disastrous to have sent these women out in pairs to do public preaching. Jesus had to make allowances for the settled instincts of his contemporaries and not act in ways that would have been roundly condemned as shamefully irresponsible.
What Jewish father, for instance, could have responsibly given over his daughter to be a disciple of Jesus when this would have entailed habitual association with men who were not blood relatives? And what women, even supposing she had somehow received training in Torah, could have expected to gain a hearing by addressing Jewish men in the public sphere? For such conduct, women would have been verbally abused and, if they continued, pelted with rotten fruit. If they then continued further, they would have been pelted with stones. Such conduct was entirely unbecoming of a woman in Jesus society!
Minimally, therefore, one must allow that even Jesus had to exercise a certain pastorally motivated restraint. Jesus sought to encourage and defend women who were themselves inspired to stretch the socially determined and religiously sanctioned norms of their society. As for the giving women the apostolic charge, however, this was not a viable option. Today, however, social norms have changed. Contemporary women are finding their voices and bringing their divinely ordained gifts into nearly every public profession. It remains a point of confusion and of pain, therefore, to hear that our brothers, John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger, would so finalize their reading of the Jesus tradition as to forever and one-sidedly offer a stony certainty rather than the saving bread of Gods Word to those who come to them requesting that the full range of gifts and the divine callings of women be accepted inside the Church.
Finally, even if Jesus had said something like, I permit no woman to be sent out among the apostles, even this would not and could not stop faithful Christians from discussing what God would have us do in our culture today. Jesus was not bent upon wooden conformity. Hence, even though, according to Matthew, Jesus restricted the mission of his disciples saying, Go nowhere among the Gentiles (Matt 10:5), even Jesus later crossed over, reluctantly encountered the Canaanite woman (Matt 15:21ff), and ended up healing and feeding Gentiles such that they glorified the God of Israel (Matt 15:31). Another example would be Jesus clear insistence that the disciples on mission take no gold, nor silver, nor copper in their belts, no bag for your journey (Matt 10:6; Mark 6:8-11; Luke 9:3-5, 10:4-12). Clearly the church never decided that this was an expression of the completely free and sovereign will of the Divine Founder such that missionaries and bishops alike must forever travel without any money or any luggage. Thus the CDF report obfuscates history by passing over in silence how deep and how wide and how long the pastoral discretion of the church has been even in those instances where explicit mandates of the Gospels were being set aside. One has the right to inquire, therefore, how it is that the CDF was able to arrive at such a great certainty regarding the free and sovereign will of the Divine Founder respecting an issue wherein not a single word on the lips of Jesus respecting the exclusion of women is forthcoming.
Looking back, therefore, the CDF report upon which our brothers John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger have taken their stand is admirable in what it does say about Jesus working against the social prejudices of his day. The report, however, fails to go far enough or deep enough when it comes to analyzing why Jesus would have broken some barriers and not others. More importantly, the report passes over in silence the practice of the Divine Master of honoring and embracing the experience of women in his teaching and preaching of the Kingdomas aspect of Jesus ministry which invites reflection and action by those who would teach and preach the Gospel in his name today. Finally, the report passes over in silence those occasions when Jesus risked his own reputation among men by standing up for the powerless and the voiceless who took initiatives which exceeded the cultural norms in his day. Here again, this aspect of Jesus ministry invites reflection and action on the part of our brothers, John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger, whose whole lives are dedicated to walking in the footsteps of their Divine Master. Finally, the report passes over in silence how Jesus sanctioned the initiative of the women (represented by Mary) who sat down to learn and to discuss Torah among the men. While Jesus could not transform the settled intuitions which governed the conduct of men and women within the public sphere, therefore, he did show himself bent upon accepting and defending the enlarged freedom and responsibilities which women within his movement had undertaken for themselves.
Thus, in the end, the very example of Jesus comes alive. And this Jesus challenges our brothers, John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger, to reflect on how poorly they have entered into the heart and will of the Divine Founder. So too, the Marthas in our Church must also reflect whether they can be satisfied that the Lords will has been done when their modern-day sisters who have presumptuously sat at the Lords feet (Luke 10:39) are returned in the name of Jesus to work in the kitchen.
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