One in Christ Jesu
Woman and Man:
One in Christ
Report on the Participation of Women
in the Catholic
Church in Australia.
Published by Harper Collins Relgious, 1999, pp. 381-384
9.7.3 Patriarchal and Hierarchical Nature of the Church
Seen as the
Fundamental Barrier to Women's Participation
The fundamental barrier concerned patriarchal attitudes and traditions, which were seen to be iinconsistent with the person and message of jesus Christ, and which failed to take into account developments in the social sciences and changes in the role of women in the wider society. It was felt that such attitudes had been reinforced by Pope John Paul II and the Vatican bureaucracy in recent times to the detriment of the teachings and spirit of the Second Vatican Council.
The structures óf the Church were experienced as male-dominated, hierarchical and authoritarian. Authoritarian attitudes and the misuse of power and position were seen as serious barriers to womens participation.
A fixation on rules and regulations, a rigid and unbending manner, and a lack of compassion and openness to dialogue were frequently-cited characteristics of a Church in need of renewal. The negative attitude towards women on the part of some of the clergy, especially parish priests, was also experienced as a significant obstacle.
9.7.4 Discrimination in the Church on the Basis of Gender
The failure of the Church to grant equal roles and status to women was experienced as a most significant barrier. The lack of gender equality and the exclusion of women from some areas of the Churchs ministry and governance, sometimes described in terms of the sin of sexism, were a source of alienation for both women and men. Many areas of Church life, whether in teachings or actual practice, were seen to exclude womens views, experiences and involvement either directly or indirectly. The issue of gender equality was raised in terms of both theology and justice. Fundamental issues concerning the theology of personhood and the theology of sexuality were seen to underpin the Churchs position on the role and status of women. It was felt that basic theological principles, such as the true and equal dignity of all men and women, made in Gods image and likeness, and the goodness of sexuality, receive inconsistent treatment in the teaching and practice of the Church. For many people in the Church, the exclusion of women from leadership and decision-making roles meant that women were treated as second-class citizens. Within Catholic organisations in Australia, a lack of mentoring for women and a lack of affirmative action policies were identified as barriers. Further, it was considered that the Church was not reflecting sound advances in society. This gap between the ecclesiastical and secular worlds was experienced as a scandal, as it was felt that the Church should be leading the way in the recognition and promotion of the true equality of all people. The absence of young women in the Church was evidence of a disparity between the attitudes of society and Church towards women.
9.7.5 Exclusion from Decision-Making and Leadership
The exclusion of women from the decision-making processes of the Church was seen as a most significant barrier to full participation of women and a serious impediment to sound decision-making in the Church. Decisionmaking and leadership were generally seen as being concentrated in the hands of the clergy and Bishops, who are all male and celibate, ìn a hierarchical leadership model. This situation effectively excluded all women and married people from mast decision-making in the Church. It was strongly felt that women were excluded from decision-making even concerning issues which directly affected them, especially moral teachings on issues such as sexuality, contraception, marriage, divorce and abortion. Because of the gender barriers to leadership, the Church was thought to be deprived of both the views and approaches of women. Even where women are present in such roles, the processes were still seen to be male-oriented. Further, it was felt that current leadership in the Church was not exercised in a collaborative or accountable manner. Not only were there few opportunities for input but there was also no forum for appeal against decisions.
Overall findings of the survey of Catholic organisations and theological institutions revealed that the participation of women as employees or students of these Catholic organisations is high, but at the senior level for both branches, that is, participation in leadership roles and in doctoral degree studies respectively, the percentage of women declines significantly. A cultural view was perceived that some positions, especially senior positions, must be held by men. The data from employer organisations highlight the structures and processes in Catholic Church organisations needing change to improve womens participation, particularly in management-leadership roles.
9.7.6 Exclusion of Women from Priestly Ordination
The exclusion of women from ordination and from other crucial ministry roles such as the permanent diaconate was experienced as á major obstacle to the full participation of women. The exclusion of women from the priesthood was seen as a denial of womens right by Baptism to full participation in the Church, as well as a denial of their gifts and talents in the service of Christ and the Church at a time a# great need. For many, the nature of ministry was viewed as the broader and more fundamental issue which needed to be addressed. It was stressed that what was important was the centrality of the Eucharist rather than an exclusively male priesthood. In various aspects of the research, it was noted that respondents were reticent to speak about the ordination of women, believing ìt to be off limits for the Project. Others took the pragmatic view that change was unlikely and therefore it would be more constructive and effective in the short term to turn ones attention to other issues and strategies.
The ban on the discussion of the ordination of women was seen as a barrier and a matter of justice in the Church. There was much agreement, even among people who took differing positions, that the issue of womens ordination be discussed. While views differed on the question of whether women should be ordained, there was support for an open discussion the issue.
9.7.7 The Question of the Ordination of Women Has Not Been Received by the Faithful as Expressive of their Catholic Belief
The findings of the research from the written submissions, public hearings and targeted groups indicated that the question of the ordination of women has not been resolved in that it had not been received by the faithful of the Church as expressive of their Catholic belief. This finding is supported by the results of the CCLS concerning respondents acceptance of the Churchs teaching on the ordination of women. Only 42 percent of Church attenders accepted the teaching with no difficulty. A particular characteristic of the response to the question on the ordination of women was the high number of respondents (27 percent) who stated that they do not accept the teaching that women cannot be ordained priests. Younger adults were most likely to reject the teaching on the ordination of women (34 percent of women and 28 percent of men aged 15 to 39) and these figures are only marginally higher than for women and men in their 40s and SDs. What is particularly noticeable is the quite high proportion of older respondents aged 60 or more who also reject this teaching - 20 percent of women and 23 percent of men. This contrasts sharply with the fact that only 3 percent of this age group do not accept the Churchs teaching authority in general.
9.7.8 A Range of Other Barriers
- A range of other barriers was identified including:
- compulsory celibacy of priests; the Church teaching and practice in relation to sexuality, marriage and the family;
- traditional teaching on artificial contraception;
- discrimination against the divorced and remarried;
- lack of role models, especially for young women;
- lack of relevance of the Church to young people;
- failure to identify the changing role of women in society as a sign of the times;
- inability of the official Church to listen to womens voices; sacramental limitations of women chaplains;
- womens contribution being undervalued;
For other findings see:
- Selected Excerpts
- Dominant Common Characteristics of Perceptions Concerning the Participation of Women in the Church
- Two contrasting Perceptions of Women in the Catholic Church of Australia
Please, credit this document
as published by www.womenpriests.org!
This website is maintained by the Wijngaards Institute for Catholic Research.
The Institute is known for issuing academic reports and statements on relevant issues in the Church. These have included scholars' declarations on the need of collegiality in the exercise of church authority, on the ethics of using contraceptives in marriage and the urgency of re-instating the sacramental diaconate of women.
You are welcome to use our material. However: maintaining this site costs money. We are a Charity and work mainly with volunteers, but we find it difficult to pay our overheads.
Visitors to our website since January 2014.
Pop-up names are online now.
The number is indicative, but incomplete. For full details click on cross icon at bottom right.